Fundamentals

Training material that covers the basics of cyber security

Learn about the fundamentals of cyber security.

Computer Basics

Binary and Hexadecimal

Binary and hexadecimal are numbering systems based upon 2 and 16.
Source: whisk0r

File Formats

Every file has a structure, and every structure can have risks.

Character Set

A character set is a mapping from characters (e.g., alphabet, numbers, punctuation) into bytes. Unicode is the most common character set in the world, and UTF-8 is the most common encoding of Unicode. Read More.
Source: Tom Scott via Computerphile

Data Structures

This video gives an introduction to data structures such as arrays, list, stacks, and queues; it demonstrates them using Python code.
Source: Brian Will via Code School

Metadata

This video explains what metadata is and answers common questions about it.
Source: Kopana Terry via MMfilm2digitutorials

Operating Systems

Overview

An operating system (OS) is the software that manages a computer’s hardware, software, and services.
Source: Shaun Michael K. Stone

Overview

An operating system (OS) is the software that manages a computer’s hardware, software, and services.
Source: Brian Will via Code School

Kernel

A kernel is a program that manages I/O requests from software and translates them into CPU instructions.
Source: Martino Jones

File System: Linux

File systems control how data is stored on disks.
Source: Shaun Michael K. Stone

File System: Windows

File systems control how data is stored on disks.
Source: O'Reilly - Video Training

Deleted Files
When files are deleted, they aren’t necessarily deleted. This guide describes what happens to deleted files and how to recover them.
Driver

A driver is a piece of software that allows a hardware device, such as a printer, to communicate with the operating system. Read More.

Networking

Introduction to Networking

This video gives an introduction to the basics of networking, such as the OSI stack, protocols, and sockets.

OSI Model

OSI Model – The OSI model is a model of how network protocols and equipment communicate with each other.
Source: Professor Messer

HTTP

Hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) is a stateless, request-response protocol used to build distributed, collaborative systems that support hypermedia information. It’s the foundation of the Web.
Source: filan fisteku

HTTP

Hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) is a stateless, request-response protocol used to build distributed, collaborative systems that support hypermedia information. It’s the foundation of the Web.
Source: Đỗ Ngọc Tuấn

HTTPS

Hypertext transfer protocol secure (HTTPS) is a secure version of HTTP. The connection is encrypted with TLS or SSL, thus protecting the privacy and integrity of any data that is exchanged.
Source: WebConcepts

Cookies

A cookie is a set of information sent from a web server to a web client. The information is formatted as a comma-delimited list of name/value pairs, typically contains state information about user activity, and is expected to be retrieved later.
Source: Adversitement

DNS

The domain name system (DNS) is a distributed naming system for computers and services connected to a network. It’s most important feature is converting a domain name (www.google.com) into its corresponding IP address
Source: DNS Made Easy Videos

Software

Database

A database stores digital data. A relational database maintains a collection of tables to store data and relate them to each other.
Source: Al Zimmerman

Database

A database stores digital data. A relational database maintains a collection of tables to store data and relate them to each other.
Source: learningsqlserver

Web Server

A web server is a computer that serves web pages and applications to users.

SQL

Structured query language (SQL) is the language used to interact with relational databases. Code Academy has a playlist of 21 short videos on the basics of SQL
Source: codeacademy.cc

Steganography

Overview

Steganography is the practice of hiding data within other data such that the hidden data cannot be detected. For example, a text file can be hidden within an image file without changing the image. Steganography can be used for covert communications.
Source: alantalkstech

Cryptography

Overview

These videos cover some of the basics of cryptography, including symmetric/asymmetric encryption, ciphers, and hash functions.

Overview

These videos cover some of the basics of cryptography, including symmetric/asymmetric encryption, ciphers, and hash functions.

Overview

These videos cover some of the basics of cryptography, including symmetric/asymmetric encryption, ciphers, and hash functions.

Symmetric Encryption

Symmetric Encryption – This video explains the basics of symmetric encryption, which is one way of protecting data so that two users can securely exchange information.

Basic Cryptanalysis and Block Ciphers

Basic Cryptanalysis and Block Ciphers – This video overviews the basics of cryptanalysis and block ciphers.

Asymmetric Encryption

Asymmetric Encryption – This video explains the basics of asymmetric encryption, another way of protecting data so that two users can securely exchange information.

Authentication and Key Management

This video introduces the authentication and key management, which are foundational blocks for encryption.